Loss and Bereavement (Emotional therapy views)

This is another from the reports I write for my course, it’s also a topic that was very hard for me to write about at the time so it’s a little bit awkward in points. Regardless, I hope whoever reads it finds it interesting!

large (1)Loss is something that will unavoidably affect us throughout our lives, for it comes in many different ways. Death is of course the first thing we think of when it comes to loss and bereavement but loss does not have to refer solely to the loss of a loved one; whether it be the loss of a job, a limb, health, innocence, home, or happiness (or many of the other things that can be lost throughout our lives), each loss—no matter how small—can be difficult and require a period of adjustment, or ‘mourning’ if you will.

Loss is not exclusive to death, whereas bereavement only deals with loss through a death, and both words are not interchangeable but do share a core meaning which is that the person suffering from loss or who is bereaved has lost something that was, in any capacity, important to them. Both do elicit a wide variety of feelings that might depend on the person lost, the person suffering from the loss, or the situation surrounding the occurrence of the loss. Where a sudden, unexpected loss has as higher chance of leaving someone feeling angry or numb, a loss that takes place over a long period of time, that someone can see coming is just as likely to give way to exhaustion and hopelessness. But even those examples are vast generalisation and it is impossible to predict what losses and bereavement will leave people feeling. Far more often than not, it is the tangle of numerous emotions that form the process of mourning, if one can only traverse it to the other side.

Grieving people will often be afraid of ‘being left behind’, not just by the deceased but by those around them, because grief may make them less social then they were. With this loneliness and fear of isolation they might start to fear how they will be able to cope with the intensity of their feelings, as well as the day to day life that still requires their attention. Having to look after others if they too were affected by the death might be extremely difficult and make some people put their own emotions on the back burner whilst they try to help others. This may cause them to turn to drinking/drugs to help coping with the situation. Some may lose themselves to religion or work as an attempt to keep themselves busy (more of this when I talk about denial). The over-empathic reaction of friends and families, as well as overwhelming subjective advice and the social pressures surrounding the bereaved are all things that can add up to make grief an even more complicated process than it already is.

The framework for some of the effects of loss reflects the general categories of emotions that come into play and I shall be using it as a guide to go through some of the stages of loss and large (3)bereavement in more detail. Grief itself is often preceded by shock. Any loss, even those we might have expected, comes with a measure of shock. Grief and the sadness/tears that represent it more commonly tend to show themselves only once the shock has receded and allowed for the reality of the situation to register. Below grief and in the centre of the framework sits denial: the refusal to believe that the loss is real, maybe accompanied with the belief that ‘things will sort themselves out’ (if we’re not talking about someone’s death). Denial can manifest in many ways, from people acting as though the other person is still around (talking about them in present tense, not mentioning their death at all), to small actions that reveal that our mind has not yet registered the loss fully (turning around to address someone we used to live with, picking up a phone to call someone who is deceased). Similarly, some people can go in denial over the loss of a relationship, stubbornly believing that they can get back with the other person even if that isn’t going to happen.

From there the framework goes in three different directions. Now not all people will go through all of those paths, and the order might be different for everyone, but they do offer a clear image of grouped reactions. On the right sits the concepts of ‘minimising’ and ‘idealising’. The first word refers to the process of trying to make the loss seem lesser than it is. This might be mostly seen in losses of jobs, home, health, or similar situations where it would be easier for the person to pretend that the loss and changes did not affect them a lot, even if they do. Idealising for its part, is when a person might put on a pedestal the one that has died, or looks back upon what has been lost through rose-tinted glasses. It is a fact that people ‘do not speak ill of the dead’, which is one of the primary causes of idealisation as only the ‘good’ sides of that person are ever talked about and whatever else they were is lost to memory. Similarly people might look back on a job or relationship, remembering how wonderful it all was before whilst completely disregarding all the issues/stress that it came with.

On the opposite side of the framework we see another three concepts: avoidance, depression, and withdrawal. Avoidance is self-explanatory and occurs when the person suffering the loss tries to avoid anything that is related to it, including but not limited to thinking about it and facing up to the consequences of it. Depression is to an extent a separate problem all together, although it can be triggered by the occurrence of the loss of bereavement.  Finally, withdrawal is used here to mean the departure of the person who has suffered the loss from their usual circles of society, with a possible nuance that they are pushing people away. This can be done for different reasons, whether it is that the person is private in their mourning process, or that they are distancing themselves from others as a way to avoid further pain, protect others from their own pain, or something entirely different.

Finally, the last segment of the framework goes down from guilt to anger. Anger is a totally normal feeling when facing loss. Anger at the situation, its possible unfairness, anger at our helplessness or the injustice of the world: it is rare that loss does not at some point elicit some form of anger. Anger in turn can give way to guilt. Be it guilt over being angry in the first place, or over events that happened prior to the loss that the anger may have been masking before it dissipated. That anger and guilt cannot be felt at the same time does not prevent one from masking the other, and it is often the case that we may be angry at something as a way to disguise how we may feel guilty about it (whether there is an actual reason for guilt and not just a perceived one). After this comes bargaining, although as discussed during the study day, this is almost a stage that could happen before the actual loss. This can be seen in people who pray and may bargain with their god(s), promising to do certain things if the loss is avoided, if the person is saved. Also outside of that, people do it in their daily lives ‘if this doesn’t/does happen, I will/won’t do this’ is a very common thing.

large (2)After that, one starts to move in the stages where one can learn to deal with the loss and grief more effectively. First comes the adjustment period, often particularly relevant for people who have had a particularly strong phase of denial or have carried through habits that are no longer relevant/healthy now that the loss has occurred. Adjustment can take many shapes, depending what the loss was. In the case of career, it could be finding a new path to walk down, when it comes to health or an ability to be self-dependent, it would be taking the correct steps to ensure that all needs are met. In the case of bereavement, it could mean moving house, putting away the belongings of a partner that are no longer needed, or anything else that would allow the person to start moving on with their lives. At last, the final step of acceptance can happen. This does not necessarily means being ‘over’ the loss, but being capable of acknowledging it and the effects it has had on our lives, as well as being capable to handle the emotions still attached to it.

Talking about grief and loss is one of the most difficult things for people to do: we live in a culture where the ‘get over it’ mentality is unfortunately dominant and forces people to bury how they truly feel about what is happening in their lives. Alongside this there is the awkwardness that comes with talking about loss: it is an uncomfortable, often difficult topic, and those that are going through it might be afraid of hurting others by bringing up their own issues. Similarly, they might be afraid of other people’s reactions: will the people around them try to appropriate the grief onto themselves (even if they were not as close to the deceased), might they only respond by bringing up their own experiences in loss? People will also be afraid of their own reactions when talking about this: they might not be wanting to show their more vulnerable side for fear of being judged (especially true for men who are told from a very young age that ‘boys don’t cry’ and other such fabricated societal ideas).

This is where the job of the counsellor is particularly important as we offer a safe place for people to work through the stages of loss and bereavement. As with every other client it is important that we respect the boundaries of what they can and cannot handle, which means we must never rush, patronise, pity or make promises. What we can offer however is an attentive ear, someone who is capable of empathising with them. It is important to allow the person to cry if tears come during the session, although it is perfectly okay to give physical and verbal expressions of concern and understanding. We are here to guide the person through what is a process that everyone who suffers loss goes through (and even those that bury it all away will eventually need to go through it or it will come back to them after the fact), we are here as someone who offers a safe, supportive environment that they may not have access to anywhere else, especially as we are totally separate from the situation. With the counsellor that person can safely start to actualise the loss and allow themselves to feel the pain of grief, and the time we give the client who is grieving is entirely theirs: there are no children, friends or family who require their attention during that time. It is also important to remember to have non-emotional (and obviously non-judgemental) reactions to whatever it is that our client is telling us. Where empathy and validation are important, if the client see that the counsellor themselves are upset by the topic they might close off and not speak as openly.

As counsellor we must, however, also be aware of our limitations. It might be that a particular client is in a situation that hits too close to home for ourselves, or that we have just largeundergone a loss of our own and cannot take on the task to help someone else through grief. When such situations arise it is good to know how, and when, to refer someone to a colleague, or doctor, or anyone who will be able to offer better care to them.

Dreams and their importance

Another post taken from my work on my emotional therapeutic course! There were elements of this session that caused me all sorts of issues, namely the concepts of male and female archetypes. I bring it up in the report below, but I also ended up writing another post about it (here) which I sent to my tutors at the time. Since then, the course has been altered to reflect our modern world more accurately, so that was one victory I certainly did not expect!

largeOne of the first things we were told on the dreams workshop was a simply sentence: ‘We cannot sensor our dreams’. That statement holds within it the powerful effect that working with our dreams can have, how it can become a gateway to fears, events, or thoughts we have not been able to access consciously for a variety of reasons. We were presented with Yung’s work as background for our work on analysing dreams. With an awareness that our consciousness is by far smaller than our unconscious/subconscious, we started our travel into the dreamworld and its meanings.

To start with, we looked at what Jung classified as archetypes of what is present within dreams. There are three sets of opposing energies surrounding the self that forms the centre part of the dream and around which everything else revolves. This seven basic archetypes are Jung’s key to the understanding of dreams.

The archetype of the journey stands opposed to the archetype of the cycle of death/rebirth. The first symbolises the beginning of some form of healing work with the destination of the journey often uncertain or irrelevant as the importance lies in the journey itself. It can be represented through actual travelling or the presence of clocks, calendars, mountains in the distance, or even a light in the distance. It speaks of development and progression. The death/rebirth cycle is opposed to the journey archetype in that it doesn’t represent a linear travel but a cycle of change. Death within dreams is unlikely to represent a physical death of the body, but is far more likely to represent the end of something (a state of mind, a situation, a relationship, etc…) with rebirth ever present on the other side of death for each end is in turn a new beginning. Whereas the journey archetype is all about the process of moving forward, the death/rebirth cycle archetype represents a crisis and the potential for something to change and begin anew.

The next set of opposing archetypes are those Jung refers to as the masculine and largefeminine archetypes (which I shall henceforth be referring to as the Yin and Yang archetypes as a way to remove myself from any gender bias attached to either of the sets of energies discussed here, with the Yin corresponding to the set of ‘feminine’ energies and the Yang to the ‘masculine’ ones). On one side the Yang energies are the doing, pro-active energies. They’re about focus and structure, about logical thought and assertiveness. Taken to the extreme they become the violent energies, domineering and frightening. On the other side the Yin energies are about growth, acceptance, and welcoming. Those energies are about nurturing and the simple state of being. Taken to the extreme they become overly passive and stagnant. Where the previous pair of archetypes worked on an either/or basis (we are either undertaking a journey OR in the process of death and rebirth) the Yin and Yang archetype is very much so about balance of the two sets of energies (which is why I also thought the Yin and Yang words were perfect to use in this regard as they are primarily about balancing energies within ourselves). Whenever these energies appear within our dreams (Yung says we usually use people of the relevant gender to personify these emotions but within my personal experience I see it as more being people who we see as representing those energies, gender regardless) it is usually as a way to tell us that there is an imbalance, that one energy might be more predominant than the other and that we need to find ways to rectify this.

Finally, the third set of opposing archetypes are the hero or saviour archetype and the adversary archetype. One the one side, the hero archetype is a positive energy about winning and saving (ourselves). It can take the shape of a warrior, or a cornucopia and represents the light. The adversary is its exact opposite with a negative energy bent on opposition and destruction. Represented by things such as fire, the devil, or wounds, it is the darkness to the hero’s light. Here the aim of these archetypes is not so much to balance each other as to be integrated. Jung believed that we needed to integrate our darkness (referred to in his work as shadow) by accepting its existence and acknowledging it. In our dreams the darkness can often manifest in the form of something chasing us, something behind us that we cannot see but are often afraid or apprehensive about. The resolution comes when we become able to turn around and accept what is behind us in our dream, therefore taking the shadow of our selves within us, and integrating it into our self.

large (2)The seventh archetype is the centre one: the self. It represents both unity and separation and is the focus point of the healing process. There are many ways for the self to present itself in our dreams, although commonly it can be seen that a house (usually from childhood) represents the self.

Dreams can easily be seen and looked at as one would look at a drama, a play unfolding upon a stage. People as actors inhabit our dreamworld with their role and meaning not always matching the person they are in our waking life, making all their interactions with us and one another meaningful on a level deeper than the simply interactions of daily life. There is often a beginning to the dream that serves to set the scene. From there onwards the plot unfolds as it would in a play with the actors going about their roles and the momentum gathering around whatever the problem is until a climax or turning point is reached. When looking at dreams as drama it is interesting to analyse the place of the actors within the setting. It also gives us the opportunity to look at the sequencing of events and the interactions that have occurred. The ending whether it be a fulfilling conclusion or an abrupt end, also holds meaning as to our situation and mental state in our waking hours.

To access a more in depth analysis of dreams we looked at three separate methods which I will now briefly describe and discus as relevant to my own personal analysis done on the day.

The first method we looked at views dreams as happening in three stages: the introduction, the story, and the ending (be it through solution or catastrophe). Each part is analysed separately: what does the first sentence of the introduction tell us? We look at the characters and setting introduced and try to draw association with our waking lives. Throughout the introduction and the story we look at what the dream is trying to say by using recent events in our lives to see if they can be linked with what is happening in the dream. Finally we must extricate from the ending of the dream what action might be needed in our daily life to fix the issue at hand.

I personally found this way of analysing dreams to be very efficient for myself as the dream I used for this I had very detailed recognition of and was therefore able to clearly look at possible associations without needing to be guided. It felt like it is definitely a method that would work best for people who very clearly recall their dreams (or at least the dream worked on) and are easily able to bring back details to mind. It also does seem to encourage a very current interpretations, by which I mean it seems to try and root the message of the dream in the present situation of the person. It asks to draw association with what happened during the previous day, but does not appear to seek to make links with perhaps longer standing issues/anxieties that the person might have and would therefore be better used for dreams that the client feel are relevant to their current situations and not something that is deeply rooted within their past (for example, a recurrent dream).

The second method consists of a list of questions to ask the dreamer. It is a guided large (1)approach to dream analysis which focusses on specific aspects. The list of thirteen questions seeks to draw out the most important parts and feelings associated to the dreams by asking thigs like a word title the dreamer would give his or her dream, what actions were taken, or what would be done differently if the dream was lived in real life. These questions are there to help the client focus only on the elements of the dream which may be helpful if the person is not used to working with dreams or struggles to recall the dream in its entirety. Being able to focus simply on the parts of it that are relevant and meaningful also partially removes the chance of drawing associations simply for the sake of finding meaning behind every single thing. I found it an interesting method when I worked with it as it brought to light one or two elements of the dream that I had not regarded in the same way before, although overall there was a restrictive quality to the questions that I found did not let me explore my dream as freely.

The final method we looked at is Johnson’s four steps in dreamwork. The first step is all about making associations: we are to take the dream’s imagery and create direct associations with words, ideas or feelings that are relevant to us. The associations need to stay direct and not become a chain of connections as this is just the first stage. The associations need to feel right, to ‘click’ for the person making them, which means it advised to not be using a dream dictionary of any kind of universal dream symbols as a way to create the associations, at least not initially. The second part focusses on linking the dream images we have just acquired to our own inner life. We are now seeking to created links in between the words/ideas/feelings that we associated with what was in the dream to our waking selves and our daily lives. We may look at patterns present in the dream that also exist in our waking lives, at emotions that are echoes of our own personalities. The goal is to seek to understand what the dream is trying to draw our attention to: is something changing that we haven’t noticed? Has a healing happened or begun to happen that we didn’t think had? We only begin to interpret all of the findings from step one and two in the third and penultimate step. Here we draw together everything we have looked at so far to find the central message in the dream. We focus on what feelings are there and try to find an interpretation that resonates honestly with ourselves. Finally, the fourth step looks at taking a concrete step following the dream. Whether it be writing a letter, talking to someone, changing certain aspects of our lives, we must focus here on what we can do during our waking time to implement the message of the dream and therefore step closer to wholeness and individuation.

large (3)When I used this method for the dream I was working on, I both found it very helpful and somehow confusing. I liked how creative and free it allowed me to be, especially after the restrictions of the second method. But I did, however, find that I was terrible at sticking to the separate steps and tended to plough on ahead, mixing everything together and doing it all at once. Perhaps I would not have tried to create the associations in the same way had I not been working from this method but I found it difficult to just keep to the steps as each images unfurled into a flurry of associations that were easy to trace and work with. It is definitely a method that I think is best suited to people who find it easy to connect with their dreams, and I believe it is probably also important to not use it as a rigid to-do list but more as a guideline in how best to get the most possible out of our dreams and as a way to keep track of the different levels of associations and when it is best to pull everything together for an overall meaning.

Before finishing it is worth adding that we spoke briefly about keeping a dream log and the importance of it for people who wish to work with their dreams. Whenever keeping such log it is best to write what we remember of our dreams as soon as possible as well as leave space in between each dream to give us a chance to come back later on and to look at them with fresh eyes as we might be able to bring a new level of understanding after we have had time to think about the dream.

 

Fear seen as an Emotional Therapist

This is another report I have written for the course I am currently on. As with the last one it’s very blog-post like, so I hope it’ll make for an interesting read!

largeFear is one of our primal emotions, alongside love, one of the first things that, as a new born, we are able to feel. Fear has a lot of negative connotations, but it is, in its most basic representation, something that allows for the triggering of the flight or fight instinct which can be intrinsic to our survival. But what happens when fear stops triggering that reaction and instead freezes us on the spot, trapping us in a pattern, situation, or cycle that we simply cannot move from? That is when fear becomes an obstacle to our daily lives, and it is also when we begin to fear the fear itself, therefore creating a loop in which we simply cannot face the original fear that has us frozen in place.

Fear is one of the most common underlying feelings that a client might demonstrate, and it more likely than not that they will be unaware that fear is the root of their problem, let alone a fear of what. Because the fear is often rooted in one or more events of childhood, it is likely that the specifics of it have all been buried away by the adult as a coping mechanism. Similarly the fear may also have been displaced.

There are many physical, mental, and emotional signs that can tell us, as counsellors that fear is an underlying problem for the client even if they do not realise it. Physical signs can range from sweaty palms to shaking, to clinging onto specific items and high levels of restlessness. Mentally and emotionally, clients who are afraid are more likely to talk themselves in circle as they are too afraid to give voice to what the actual problem is. They are also likely to report high levels of anxiety in their daily lives as well as suffer from panic attacks. Addictions are also a good sign that there may be fear masked by the client’s actions. And those are only a small selection of examples on how fear manifest itself: lack of sleep, untargeted anger, and a chaotic lifestyle with no capacity to adapt are also some of the red flags surrounding fear in a client.

Anxiety, as is mentioned above, is unfocussed fear that the client has detached from what created it in the first place and it has become spread over everything that is part of the client’s life. Phobia, on the contrary, is a focussed fear, wherein a particular object, situation, or creature, becomes the target of an intense, uncontrollable fear. It is likely that phobias are displaced and targeted fears the origin of which clients can neither face nor recognise.

As therapists what we offer client is not to diminish their face, but it is to develop love large (1)(and self-love) to balance out the fear and make it more manageable. We cannot rid people of their fear, but what we can do is help the wounds caused by the events that created the fear, heal, and become just a scar. Triggering events will always make the scar feel sensitive but, with self-love and the proper healing having happened, a person can know what it is that is causing the feelings and why it is doing so and therefore be able to tackle how they feel both on a mental and emotional level.

When handling people who are afraid it is important for the therapist to be aware that they might need to approach the person and their issues in ways that are tailored to that person as each individual will handle their fear differently. One thing that can be said in most cases is to remind the person that they are being brave, and showing courage in coming to therapy. Courage can only exist in the face of fear, and by coming to therapy people are willing to tackle the fear that is hindering their lives, therefore demonstrating courage. This alone can help some people feel emboldened and more in control when it comes to the difficult process of therapy.

Most important is not to frighten the person away, not to give them another thing to be afraid of. It is necessary to be reassuring with frightened clients, perhaps to employ a particularly soft tone of voice to help them feel at ease. Exercises such as creative expression and dreamwork could prove beneficial to such clients: the former as a way to express the fear in a safe environment and in whichever way is more suited to them and the latter potentially as a way to uncover hints towards what is causing the fear. Visualization can be used to help calm the person if the session has taken them to somewhere which has caused them distress, whereas working with the stones might be a way to find out whether the fear is linked to one individual, or a group of individuals in particular.

What is important above all, and if not done will render any attempt to help the person useless, is the building of trust. Without trust, the client will not be able to open to their fear in front of the therapist, who will most likely become feared in turn.

large (2)It is important to help the client also understand that the fear they feel is not simply their own, but that of the inner child who has been holding onto that fear potentially for years now. It is very important to comfort the inner child and to teach the client to do the same, and not to belittle whatever it is that their inner child is feeling. Ways to get the client in touch with the inner child could involve the use of photographs from childhood (or old diaries), non-dominant hand writing, or the good parent visualization. It could be helpful to ask the client what would have helped them when they were in that situation and do behave that way towards the inner child where possible.

The therapist could ask questions along the line of ‘Can you remember a time when you felt afraid/safe/anxious?’ as a way to start creating a timeline of when the fear was created. Although this might be difficult for customers who have little to no memories of their childhood. Client willing, there are ways to help them try and retrieve these memories, but it is never guaranteed and there is always the risk of the client going to very dark and uncomfortable, often frightening, places. Again the use of old photos can help jog specific memories, and if the client has any, they could use object or toys from their past to build memories outwards from what they remember regarding the object/toy. Talking to old friends and family can also help.

It is also possible that the fear will prevent the recovery of memories, or that they have simply been lost and as such the therapist will need to work more with the present life of the client instead of trying to heal the wounds of the past. It is also possible that the fear has been created in a more recent past and not in the childhood, and therefore will likely need to be tackled differently. Either way, it is important to help people realise that fear is False Evidence Affecting Reality and that the proper support and love, it can be overcome in most cases.

Childhood development: nature vs nurture, or is it both?

Nature_versus_NurtureThe start of my childhood development course has taken me down the alleys of thinking about how it is exactly that children develop and what it is that affects their development. History has seen many a theory being introduced to explain how it is that we develop, learn, and grow. Not all of them still fully apply today, and some seem absolutely baffling if you’re not inclined to share the views of those who first introduced them. But on the whole, most of them have good points that seems to work especially well when mixed and matched in between the different theories.

The four I studied in-depth seemed to grow from within one another, with obvious elements of past theories being dropped as new and shiny concepts are introduced. Sometimes the progress is minimal, sometimes it is revolutionary, but each step taken forward towards a more global understanding of childhood development is an important one: full of promises of better parenting, happier children, and better developed adults. But there is a debate that has always permeated theories of development: are we the product of nature, or the product of nurture?

It’s not just psychologists that have been faced with this headache, and philosophers have, for centuries, asked themselves the same question. To clarify the terms, nature refers roughly to what we are given at birth: our DNA. Nature will decide if we have blond or brown hair, blue or grey eyes, whether our knees are not aligned or we are likely to get coldsores. Nurture, on the contrary, does not come to us with birth, but through the social context in which we are born, through the people around us, through the education we receive, and so on and so forth. So nurture isn’t going to decide what colour hair we have, but it is likely to decide what kind of human being we grow up into.

To an extent.

And this is where it gets tricky. Once we are grown adults, how can we pretend to know how and why we have turned out as we have? We can make guesses, theorize,  look back on our childhood and try to make rational, logical sense of it in a way we couldn’t at the time. But at the end of the day, even through careful study of other children, there is no sure way to draw solid conclusions and form theories that could claim to apply universally (because humans, after all, have this awful tendency to all be so very different from one another).

Take, for example, the case of Alfred (Yes, this is the best name I could up with for my made-up example). Alfred was born in a loving home, surrounded by a loving, peaceful family. He never spent ridiculous amount of hours watching violent programs on TV either. And yet, Alfred was a violent, anti-social child who could hardly be controlled by his parents. Eventually, it was discovered that Alfred had been born with a deficient part of his brain and was in fact a psychopath  Here, nurture is absolutely powerless against nature, although there is no doubt the nurturing would have affected Alfred in some ways. But nonetheless, who Alfred grew into was not ruled by nurture, but by nature. Perhaps even by both for who can say how Alfred would have turned out had he been raised away from a loving and understanding home? Nobody can, and that’s why the nurture vs nature debate is such a tricky one.

Obviously, there are times when nurture can influence nature, or at least can seem to. Children who are unruly from a young age can be taught discipline, but it is difficult to know whether their unruliness is something that they were born with (an innate trait of character) or whether it something they picked up from peers or siblings behaviour.  What, however, of children who demonstrate such behaviour without ever having witnessed it from others? Are they born with an innate desire to be unruly and cause havoc? Perhaps. And if that is the case then nurture can indeed overrule (or perhaps more so, bend and modify) nature.

genes-environment-choices-500x492

Another issue with the concept is when we start looking at people’s choices in career. Those who follow artistic careers and have had contact with an adult they are related to who also follows such a career might find they are told that they are doing so that it is because it is in their nature (clearly being a musician runs into the family, for example). But if a child of two doctors follows the same line of work as his parents, people are far more likely to blame it on nurture (it’s all he’s ever known/he’s trying to be like you). The question is, what is the difference? Maybe a child only chooses to become a musician, not because it is somehow written in his genes, but because he wants to be like his father, his mother, or his uncle. And maybe the little girl whose parents are doctors decides to follow in their footsteps not become she dreams of being like them, but because she feels a real calling towards the profession.

Either way, the idea that either nature or nurture forms us into what we become misses out one important factor: choice. Neither theories, not even them combined, take our own personal choices into account. From a very young age, babies and children are capable of making choices in their day-to-day lives and those choices are likely to have as strong an impact on their development as nurture and nature put together. But that’s for a different blog post all-together.

Psychologists are more and more agreeing that pitching nature vs nurture is a terrible idea and that if we are to truly understand how we develop, both as children and once we have reached our adult years, we need to look at both. To understand one truly would mean the need to understand the other just as completely. Indeed, how could there be development as we know it if only nurture, or only nature had a part to play?

Welcome to the Psych Engine!

Hello internet people, and welcome to my own little corner of this vast information network; welcome to the Psych Engine. Pretty cool name for a psychology blog, huh? Well, to be honest, I’m not the one who thought it up, my little brother did, because he’s cool like that. He’s also the guy who designed the awesome blog banner!

Anyway, less praising for the little brother, and more of what this—my blog—is about. The Psych Engine is a vaguely self explanatory title: This blog is about psychology. Just a little over a year ago I started a psychology course with the OU and, after surviving six months of boring old social science studies, I have finally gotten onto the good stuff. But getting onto the good stuff also means that there are a thousand and one things I want to say, experiment with, or just talk about.

Hence how this little place of the internet came to be mine: It’s going to be my musing board for the foreseeable future for all things psychological which should be ranging from simple musings, to—hopefully—casual experiments for which I intend to use my dearest and friends and family for guinea pigs—they don’t mind, really.

My primary areas of interest at the moment—I say at the moment as I’ve only started studying and I probably only have a narrow view of what I could be interested into—is identity through gender, identity through disability, as well as the concept of core identity as well as what makes people so damned unique: their personality, and how it is created for each people.

So you’ll probably see plenty of posts about the above on here!

So yes, I hope I’ll be able to post interesting things here and that I will draw a few people to come have a look at my blog and hopefully start interesting conversations!

Anyway, that’s enough for now. See you all when I have some time to post!